1. In Hawai'i, Hawaiian, as an official language of the state, can substitute for English.

2. Unless there is an additional official state language as is the case in Hawai'i where learners may substitute Hawaiian for English.

3. The institutions which are eligible to award the Seal of Biliteracy are determined by each state’s policies.

4. For research on the benefits of biliteracy, see:

5. Source: - page 11

6. Language tasks are well described in the NCSSFL-ACTFL Can-Do Statements( and in the WIDA Can Do Descriptors (

7. New York State Seal of Biliteracy Handbook, page 7 (adapted from the Buffalo Public Schools Seal of Biliteracy pilot):

  1. Examples of student work might include projects, problem-solving exercises, personal reflections, tests, essays, written or performed plays, videotaped interviews, PowerPoint presentations, and travel diaries. A portfolio may also include a project involving research on a topic of interest and creation of a culminating project that showcases the learner’s skills, abilities, and talents in the target language. Projects may have the following components:

    1. ● Project proposal page and a research reference page citing all sources in the target language
    2. ● Reflective Journal in which the learner records ongoing thoughts, ideas, interactions with sources, and other useful information
    3. ● Artifacts, Data, and Evidence, including any physical objects or artistic creations, data collected, and any visuals or presentations that are part of the project
    4. ● Presentation to explain, defend, demonstrate knowledge, and/or demonstrate understanding and command of the topic to a panel of judges in the target language
    5. ● Reflection Paper in the target language to summarize the process and outcomes.

8. Modern Language Association, Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World (